How does processing and heat treatment procedures alter microstructures? This lecture defines and illustrates with multiple examples to show how processing and heat treatment procedures alter microstructures. Examples are given of improper microstructures that caused component failures. Topics covered include: as-rolled microstructures, annealing, normalizing, isothermal transformations, continuous cooling transformations, under and over-austenitization, prior-austenite grain size control, solution annealing, surface treatments (carburizing, carbo-nitriding, nitriding), retained austenite, and problem microstructures. Examples illustrate how different etchants for steels reveal such structures, either more [...]
Free Webinar! 12 November, 12:00 (AST) / MATERIALOGRAPHIC PREPARATION: 10 COMMON MISTAKES AND HOW TO AVOID THEMGuldenay Tamergil
Final results in sample preparation can be affected by wrong use of machines and consumables. During this webinar we will go through 10 usual mistakes and we will learn what are their causes, consequences and solutions. Materialographic preparation can be tricky. It is a common assumption to believe that using the best cutting and polishing machines or the highest quality resins and diamond suspensions is enough to obtain perfect results. If used wrong, even the most expensive instrument can lead [...]
High-alloy tool steels require the production of a very clean material with specific mechanical, physical and metallurgical properties. Metallographic inspection, from the initial casting stage to the final heat-treated product, is an essential tool for controlling the manufacturing and heat treatment processes.
Metallic zinc is used for corrosion protection of cast irons, mild steels and low-alloy steels. The metallography of galvanized products includes measuring coating thickness, microstructure analysis, base metal adhesion checks and failure analysis. Depending on the galvanizing method, zinc coatings behave differently during metallographic preparation, which makes selecting the correct method essential.